Origin[ edit ] Transcendentalism is closely related to Unitarianismthe dominant religious movement in Boston in the early nineteenth century. Transcendentalism was not a rejection of Unitarianism; rather, it developed as an organic consequence of the Unitarian emphasis on free conscience and the value of intellectual reason.
Postal Service stamp honoring Ralph Waldo Emerson issued in He founded a new religious, philosophical, and literary movement called Transcendentalism. They also rejected the Puritan belief that God had already decided who was predestined for heaven and hell.
The Unitarians believed that individuals had the free will to work for their salvation. Three decades later, religious division erupted within the Unitarian Church of Boston. Different factions disagreed over the divinity of Jesus. Some leading Unitarian ministers, like Ralph Waldo Emerson, finally left the church to seek a more meaningful religious experience.
After resigning his Boston ministry inEmerson moved to nearby Concord and began to lecture and write about religion and the individual. Inhe formed a discussion group with dissenting Unitarians and others. These men and a few women debated topics of the day.
Emerson attacked the Unitarian Church for promoting a lifeless form of Christianity. Emerson argued that individuals could discover truth and God within themselves without belonging to a church or holding a particular set of religious beliefs.
The Unitarian establishment in Boston reacted with horror and accused Emerson of blasphemy and atheism. Harvard banned him from making any more speeches to its students. Byhe had developed the main ideas that defined Transcendentalism. Emerson found divine energy in all living things.
At different times, he called this energy the universal spirit, universal consciousness, over-soul, or God. In his way of thinking, this universal spirit gave all life meaning and purpose. From it came all truth, beauty, and goodness. Emerson counseled his followers to seek God by looking inward.
Emerson rejected the old Puritan doctrine that humans were born as sinful creatures. He held a much more optimistic view that all men and women possessed a natural capacity to do good and for society to progress.
Emerson taught, however, that individuals would first have to reform themselves before they could change society. The Transcendentalists disagreed over this.
Some argued that persons of conscience had an immediate moral duty to improve society and fight injustice. These were the Transcendentalist reformers. His daughter was the writer Louisa May Alcott. InAlcott opened a school for 30 boys and girls in a Boston Masonic Temple.
He discarded memorization and appealed to the interests of children. He and his teachers read aloud stories and poems and discussed their meaning with the students. Alcott involved the children themselves in maintaining classroom discipline and provided time for physical exercise.
The Temple School lasted only a few years and closed after Boston ministers condemned Alcott for teaching Christianity from a Transcendentalist point of view. She believed women should discover themselves through learning and reflection. How shall we do it? She argued that women should be involved in any activity they were capable of performing.Nov 22, · Essays, First Series is a series of 12 essays written by Ralph Waldo Emerson concerning transcendentalism, including Self-Reliance.
Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau.
This video defines Transcendentalism, a literary movement of the midth century. Authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman used their literary platforms to. Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts in He graduated from Harvard in , the same year he began his lifelong Journal.
Inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thoreau became a key member of the Transcendentalist movement that . Franklin vs.
Thoreau essaysBenjamin Franklin and Henry David Thoreau have been considered two influential thinkers in society. Both men lived in centuries past, but their beliefs and views still reside within some of history's most creditable figures such as: Martin Luther King Jr. and Gandhi. Nov 23, · With his famed essay "Nature," Transcendentalist leader Ralph Waldo Emerson argued that interactions with nature are the most valuable form of spiritual experience.
But how do you carry the insights gained from nature back into the real world? The Selected Essays of Henry David Thoreau. Henry David Thoreau.
PHP The. Emerson, one of the preeminent transcendentalists of his day, was many things. He was a preacher, a poet, and a philosopher. Most of all he was a thinker and .