Seen on the television game show "Jeopardy," November 16 Michael Hart and Project Gutenberg were the answers!
Stencil Hand stencilsmade by blowing pigment over a hand held against a wall, have been found in Asia and Europe dating from over 35, years ago, and later prehistoric dates in other continents. Stencils may have been used to colour cloth for a very long time; the technique probably reached its peak of sophistication in Katazome and other techniques used on silks for clothes during the Edo period in Japan.
In Europe, from about they were commonly used to colour old master prints printed in black and white, usually woodcuts. In China seals were used since at least the Shang dynasty.
In the Western Zhousets of seal stamps were encased in blocks of type and used on clay moulds for casting bronzes. By the end of the 3rd century BC seals were also used for printing on pottery. In the Northern dynasties textual sources contain references to wooden seals with up to characters.
Daoists used seals as healing devices by impressing therapeutic characters onto the flesh of sick people. They were also used to stamp food, creating a talismanic character to ward off disease. The first evidence of these practices appeared under a Buddhist context in the mid 5th century.
Centuries later seals were used to create hundreds of Buddha images. Archaeological evidence of them have been unearthed at Mawangdui and in the tomb of the King of Nanyuewhile block printed fabrics have been discovered at Mashan zhuanchang in JianglingHubei.
Among the earliest evidence of this is a stone inscription cut in mirror image from the early 6th century. Yuan Dynasty woodblocks edition of a Chinese play Mongolian Buddhist printing block. Korean wood printing block from the 19th century, on display at the British Museum in London.
A printing block from Yangzhou. Song dynasty bronze plate advertising print for the Liu family needle shop at Jinan.
Earliest extant print advertisement. Copperplate of — cash Jin dynasty — paper money with bronze movable type counterfeit markers Ceramic movable type print from the Western Xia. A revolving typecase for wooden type in China, from Wang Zhen 's book published in Wooden movable type for Old Uyghur alphabetdated to the 12thth centuries.
Discovered in the Mogao caves.
It became widely used throughout East Asia both as a method for printing on textiles and later, under the influence of Buddhismon paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to about Ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print.
Most European uses of the technique on paper are covered by the term woodcut see belowexcept for the block-books produced mainly in the fifteenth century.
Eventually he was dealt with by the governor's successor, who presumably executed Gong. The semi-mythical record of him therefore describes his usage of the printing process to deliberately bewilder onlookers and create an image of mysticism around himself.
According to Mahayana beliefs, religious texts hold intrinsic value for carrying the Buddha's word and act as talismanic objects containing sacred power capable of warding off evil spirits.
By copying and preserving these texts, Buddhists could accrue personal merit. As a consequence the idea of printing and its advantages in replicating texts quickly became apparent to Buddhists, who by the 7th century, were using woodblocks to create apotropaic documents. These Buddhist texts were printed specifically as ritual items and were not widely circulated or meant for public consumption.
Instead they were buried in consecrated ground. The Great Dharani Sutra Korean: They have been dated to the reign of Wu Zetian using character form recognition. This copy of the Diamond Sutra is 14 feet long and contains a colophon at the inner end, which reads: Reverently [caused to be] made for universal free distribution by Wang Jie on behalf of his two parents on the 13th of the 4th moon of the 9th year of Xiantong [i.
It is considered the world's oldest securely-dated woodblock scroll. During the Song dynastythe Directorate of education and other agencies used these block prints to disseminate their standardized versions of the Classics.
Other disseminated works include the Histories, philosophical works, encyclopedias, collections, and books on medicine and the art of war. It took 10 years to finish theblocks needed to print the text.
The finished product, the Sichuan edition of the Kaibao canon, also known as the Kaibao Tripitaka, was printed in The request was granted in when Seongjong's official Han Eongong visited the Song court. The project was suspended in after Heyongjong's death, but work resumed again in after Munjong 's accession to the throne.
The completed work, amounting to some 6, volumes, was finished in But the most important technological advance of all was the development of printing, with movable metal type, about the midth century in Germany.
A German named Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in Printing press invention had a large impact on the value of the books, religion and reformation and education. Latest publications.
Printing History News Number 59 appeared in July The issue includes: a description of the newly-established printing room at Denbigh Museum, Wales, containing artefacts from the former Gwasg Gee printing works; a link to a new online digital resource on the history of printing ‘Democratising Knowledge’, produced by National Museums Scotland and the University of.
+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The printing press was invented in The movable printing technology was invented in China in but Johannes Gutenberg was able to perfect this technology by creating the Gutenberg printer in The printer was a movable type.
A movable type was where individual blocks could be set up in. In a legal paper, written after completion of the Bible, Johannes Gutenberg refers to the process as Das Werk der Bücher (“the work of the books”).
He had copied the technology of the printing press and was the first European to print with movable type, but his greatest achievement was arguably demonstrating that the process of printing actually produced books. - In , Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press and changed the world forever.
Before this miraculous invention, the only way people could copy literary texts was by hand, which was a very tedious and expensive process.