WhatsApp Apoorv Pathak A united and prepared opposition, unease over Hindutva philosophy, rising inflation, and likely suboptimal economic performance are among the reasons why Modi is unlikely to get a second term, though it is a bit too early to arrive a definitive conclusion.
Click here to View table Lack of adequate employment opportunities generally induces migration from rural to urban areas. In India, internal migration has been accorded very low priority by the government, partly due to a serious information gap on its extent, nature and magnitude.
The number of migrants in the country was as high as millions in the year of which migrants from rural areas accounted for over two-thirds. Rural to urban migration to a certain extent has eased the unemployment stress in rural areas while benefiting the urban areas in sectors like construction and industrialization.
However, seasonal unemployment, under-employment and resultant poor income levels in the rural areas remain a cause of concern.
Unemployment, especially among the landless and small farmers who have very poor asset base accentuates during drought years, particularly in rainfed agriculture dominated regions. Therefore, it was imperative that the State had to take a strong policy initiative to restore the balance.
Hence a study was taken with the objectives like impact of the scheme on the livelihoods of wage employees, wage rate changes in the rural areas and the status of assets and their use by the farmers and the communities in general.
The present study is aimed at pointers for effective scheme implementation for poverty reduction, food security, use of earningsand impact on agriculture especially in terms of labour wages. Materials and Methods To examine the impact of NREGS on rural employment, a study was conducted in during the period in four key states viz.
For the survey and field work, one district, with larger number of works undertaken as part of NREGS, from each was selected. The key demographic and agricultural characteristics of the sample districts are presented in the annexure.
A total of employment beneficiaries under NREGS and farmers were interviewed for the study from the above four states. Considering the scope of this paper, the analysis and inferences are limited here to the sample lot of employment beneficiaries and the secondary data only.
Similarly, secondary data were collected from the websites www. The raw data collected from primary and secondary sources was treated or analyzed using simple averages, percentages and t test for comparison among the sample units.
Results and Discussion 3. NREGS was originally launched in February, in districts and was subsequently extended to another districts in Currently the scheme is in implementation in all the rural districts of the country.
It is an entitlement scheme guarantees to provide days of employment to all those rural households who demand work.
During the six years ending Marchabout 7. However, the specific information on impact of the scheme on livelihoods, is hardly available, but would be important to further strengthen the scheme. This study attempts to assess the impact of the scheme on rural livelihoods with focus on employment and wages, especially in predominantly rainfed areas of India.
Thus, the predominantly rainfed states together accounted for almost 76 percent of the funds under the scheme Table- 3. The maximum number of works in the case of Uttar Pradesh is due to more number of work items like rural connectivity i.
State wise distribution of works and expenditure incurred under the scheme 3. This is a staggering figure considering that the total rural households in India are millions, which accounts for about 36 percent coverage. This indicates that the scheme has empowered the women by providing greater employment opportunities Dasgupta and Ratna, Across the states, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha have been able to provide employment for days to a relatively larger proportion of households Table 4.
On an average, the annual employment generated worked out to 11 person days for the families covered by the scheme. This is presumably due to poor demand for work, besides less enthusiasm for continuous engagement and low preference for the types of works offered under the scheme. Distribution of employment generation across states Click here to View table Following are the results of the study conducted across the four states probing into the coverage and penetration of the scheme and its impact on the poverty and livelihood status: Results from Regional Village Studies The Anantapur, Udaipur, Yavatmal and Bellary districts, respectively represented the selected states in the study sample.
A comparative status and impact of NREGS, especially with respect to employment and wages across the study villages in the selected districts of four sample states is presented and discussed in this section. Post NREGS, the migration level has come down drastically across the sample districts, the highest being in Anantapur.
Besides, it brought about qualitative life changes by avoidance of dislocation and higher cost of living and enhanced enrollment of children in schools. Deshingkar and Frrington had studied the migration trends in south Asia and emphasized the need for effective welfare schemes to handle the distress migration and hence this scheme has shown that it can bring down such distress.
The study of course does not fully attribute the changed migration status only to NREGS, as several other developments like a new irrigation project in a state like Andhra Pradesh in some parts of the state has drawn back the people on migration in urban areas to the villages, similarly other welfare measures of the state Table 6: Employment obtained in NREGS per household was also the highest in Anantapur district compared to the other three districts.Socio-Economic Impact of Mgnrega - A Study Undertaken among Beneficiaries of 20 Villages of made to analyses the socio-economic impact of MGNREGA ahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the flagship programme of the Indian.
The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act of covered districts-known as Phase I districts, and in this was extended to cover additional districts known as the Phase II districts.
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Introduction. A subsidy, often viewed as the converse of a tax, is an instrument of fiscal ashio-midori.comd from the Latin word 'subsidium', a subsidy literally implies coming to assistance from behind.
However, their beneficial potential is at its best when they are transparent, well targeted, and suitably designed for practical ashio-midori.comies are helpful for both economy and people. Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development, Shri Amarjeet Sinha giving away awards at Consultation on Annual Plan and Strategies for Credit Linkage of SHGs at .
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) of Government of India targets deprivation and food insecurity in rural households,. It is suggested that MGNREGA may have a general positive effect on the nutrition and well-being of children .