Participants[ edit ] Prior to the procedure, monks may chant mantra around the body and burn juniper incense — although ceremonial activities often take place on the preceding day. The work of disassembling of the body may be done by a monk, or, more commonly, by rogyapas "body-breakers". All the eyewitness accounts remarked on the fact that the rogyapas did not perform their task with gravity or ceremony, but rather talked and laughed as during any other type of physical labor.
The locations of preparation and sky burial are understood in the Vajrayana traditions as charnel grounds. The majority of Tibetans and many Mongolians adhere to Vajrayana Buddhismwhich teaches the transmigration of spirits. There is no need to preserve the bodyas it is now an empty vessel.
Birds may eat it or nature may cause it to decompose. In much of Tibet and Qinghaithe ground is too hard and rocky to dig a grave, and, due to the scarcity of fuel and timber, sky burials were typically more practical than the traditional Buddhist practice of cremation.
In the pastcremation was limited to high lamas and some other dignitaries, but modern technology and difficulties with sky burial have led to its increasing use by commoners. History and development The Tibetan sky-burials appear to have evolved from ancient practices of defleshing corpses as discovered in archeological finds in the region.
Most of Tibet is above the tree line, and the scarcity of timber makes cremation economically unfeasible. Additionally, subsurface interment is difficult since the active layer is not more than a few centimeters deep, with solid rock or permafrost beneath the surface.
The customs are first recorded in an indigenous 12th-century Buddhist treatise, which is colloquially known as the Book of the Dead Bardo Thodol. Tibetan tantricism appears to have influenced the procedure.
Dissection occurs according to instructions given by a lama or adept. Sky burial was initially treated as a primitive superstition and sanitation concern by the Communist governments of both the PRC and Mongolia ; both states closed many temples and China banned the practice completely from the Cultural Revolution of the late s until the s.
Sky burial nonetheless continued to be practiced in rural areas and has even received official protection in recent years.
However, the practice continues to diminish for a number of reasonsincluding restrictions on its practice near urban areas and diminishing numbers of vultures in rural districts. Where the vultures remain, they often react badly to corpses treated with medicine and disinfectants at modern hospitals.
Finally, Tibetan practice holds that the yak carrying the body to the charnel grounds should be set free, making the rite much more expensive than a service at a crematorium. Purpose and meaning For Tibetan Buddhistssky burial and cremation are templates of instructional teaching on the impermanence of life.
Such generosity and compassion for all beings are important virtues in Buddhism. Although some observers have suggested that jhator is also meant to unite the deceased person with the sky or sacred realmthis does not seem consistent with most of the knowledgeable commentary and eyewitness reports, which indicate that Tibetans believe that at this point life has completely left the body and the body contains nothing more than simple flesh.
Only people who directly know the deceased usually observe it, when the excarnation happens at night. The tradition and custom of the jhator afforded Traditional Tibetan medicine and thangka iconography with a particular insight into the interior workings of the human body. Pieces of the human skeleton were employed in ritual tools such as the skullcupthigh-bone trumpetetc.
A traditional jhator is performed in specified locations in Tibet and surrounding areas traditionally occupied by Tibetans. Drigung Monastery is one of the three most important jhator sites.
The procedure takes place on a large flat rock long used for the purpose. The charnel ground durtro is always higher than its surroundings.
It may be very simple, consisting only of the flat rock, or it may be more elaborate, incorporating temples and stupa chorten in Tibetan. Relatives may remain nearby during the jhatorpossibly in a place where they cannot see it directly. The jhator usually takes place at dawn.
The full jhator procedure as described below is elaborate and expensive. Those who cannot afford it simply place their deceased on a high rock where the body decomposes or is eaten by birds and animals. Accounts from observers vary. The following description is assembled from multiple accounts by observers from the U.
References appear at the end. Participants Prior to the procedure, monks may chant mantra around the body and burn juniper incense — although ceremonial activities often take place on the preceding day. The work of disassembling of the body may be done by a monkor, more commonly, by rogyapas " body-breakers ".
All the eyewitness accounts remarked on the fact that the rogyapas did not perform their task with gravity or ceremonybut rather talked and laughed as during any other type of physical labor. According to Buddhist teachingthis makes it easier for the soul of the deceased to move on from the uncertain plane between life and death onto the next life.
Disassembling the body According to most accounts, vultures are given the whole body. Then, when only the bones remain, these are broken up with mallets, ground with tsampa barley flour with tea and yak butter, or milkand given to the crows and hawks that have waited for the vultures to depart.
In several accounts, the flesh was stripped from the bones and given to vultures without further preparation; the bones then were broken up with sledgehammers, and usually mixed with tsampa before being given to the vultures. Many rogyapa first feed the bones and cartilage to the vultures, keeping the best flesh until last.
After having had their fill of good quality meat, the birds usually fly away - leaving the bones and less favored bits. In one account, the leading rogyapa cut off the limbs and hacked the body to pieces, handing each part to his assistants, who used rocks to pound the flesh and bones together to a pulp, which they mixed with tsampa before the vultures were summoned to eat.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
At the mention of Tibetan funeral customs, sky burial (celestial burial) would pop into our mind immediately. However, sky burial is not the only funeral ritual in Tibet. Greatly influenced by the Tibetan Buddhism and Bon Religion, funeral rituals practiced in Tibet are stupa burial, sky burial, fire burial (cremation), water burial, and internment.
Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and ashio-midori.com The religion of the nomads is a unique blend of Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Replete with rituals, superstitions and multiple deities, their complex belief system includes the practice of excarnation–leaving the bodies of the dead in the open air to be eaten by scavengers.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. February Asian Traditional Archery Grip on the Bow. From Soon See I read in a book called Arab Archery (which is a translation of a manuscript written in the 15th century) that Arabic bow has its center located at the point which is one finger width below the top of the grip.