Download entire bibliography pdf, 1. Johns River in The founding of St.
The area now covered by Texas was occupied by three major indigenous cultures, which had reached their developmental peak before the arrival of European explorers and are known from archaeology.
The influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries. The Paleo-Indians who lived in Texas between — BC may have links to Clovis and Folsom cultures; these nomadic people hunted mammoths and bison latifrons  using atlatls.
They extracted Alibates flint from quarries in the panhandle region. Beginning during the 4th millennium BCthe population of Texas increased despite a changing climate and the extinction of giant mammals.
Many pictograms from this era, drawn on the walls of caves or on rocks, are visible in the state, including at Hueco Tanks  and Seminole Canyon. Native Americans in East Texas began to settle in villages shortly after BC, farming and building the first burial mounds.
They were influenced by the Mississippian culturewhich had major sites throughout the Mississippi basin. From the 8th century, the bow and arrow appeared in the region,  manufacture of pottery developed, and Native Americans increasingly depended on bison for survival. Obsidian objects found in various Texan sites attest of trade with cultures in present-day Mexico and the Rocky Mountainsas the material is not found locally.
As of the colonial period, Texas was largely divided between 6 culture groups. The Caddoan peoples occupied the area surrounding the entire length of the Red River. All four of them held some land in what is now Texas.
While the northern-most groups faced a cultural collapse due to a drought, many of the southern tribes survive to the present. North of the Pueblos were the Apachean tribes. Although commonly referred to as one, single nation, they are actually a culture group.
The Coahuiltecans, at some point, would have migrated south to merge with their sister tribes. In the 18th century, the Creek Confederacy formed on the east coast, forcing several smaller Muskogean peoples out of the state. The Choctaw also split and one of their four subtribes, the Houma came to reside in the eastern region the state before returning to Louisiana.
After the American Revolution, many tribes were being consistently moved to migrate further west and give up their lands to American citizens.
This may have been due to the unusual circumstance that the United States still considered many of these tribes as foreign nations, but outwardly claimed the land they stood on. That being said, the main push was for new, rich farmland as the plantation-style farming on the east coast soon damaged the native soil.
Many tribes in the early 19th century became fed up with these practices, choosing to migrate to Texas, which was still a part of New Spain at the time. Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for explorers and settlers through their attacks and resistance to European conquest.
In the 19th century, they resisted European and American expansion, and there was frequent warfare. Three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: Tabor Community near Overton, Texas. Cabeza de Vaca was the first European to explore the interior of Texas.
French colonization of Texas: Its initial settlement by Europeans occurred by accident. After the fort was constructed, one of the ships returned to France, and the other two were soon destroyed in storms, stranding the settlers.
La Salle and his men searched overland for the Mississippi River, traveling as far west as the Rio Grande  and as far east as the Trinity River. That month, a third expedition launched a final attempt to find the Mississippi.
The expedition experienced much infighting, and La Salle was ambushed and killed somewhere in East Texas.
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Feeling that the French colony was a threat to Spanish mines and shipping routes, King Carlos II's Council of war recommended the removal of "this thorn which has been thrust into the heart of America. The greater the delay the greater the difficulty of attainment.
The last expedition discovered a French deserter living in Southern Texas with the Coahuiltecans. Establishment of Spanish colony[ edit ] News of the destruction of the French fort "created instant optimism and quickened religious fervor" in Mexico City.
The Indians regularly stole the mission cattle and horses and showed little respect to the priests. This concerned Spanish authorities, who ordered the reoccupation of Texas as a buffer between New Spain and French settlements in Louisiana.
Accompanying the soldiers were the first recorded female settlers in Spanish Texas. The French soldiers explained that additional soldiers were coming, and the Spanish colonists, missionaries, and remaining soldiers fled to San Antonio.
With no soldiers to protect them, the East Texas missions relocated to San Antonio. Although the missionaries had been unable to convert the Hasinai tribe of East Texas, they did become friendly with the natives.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. In history of Europe: Discovery of the New World Similar hopes inspired Spanish exploitation of the discovery by Christopher Columbus of the Caribbean outposts of the American continent in The Treaties of Tordesillas and Saragossa in and defined the limits of westward Spanish exploration and the eastern ventures of Portugal.
compared with the spanish franciscans in new mexico, the puritans failed miserably in controlling the native americans. As a result of Bacon's Rebellion, the planter-merchants curbed political corruption and included some ambitious yeomen in the government.
Alternative Titles: America, U.S., U.S.A., United States of America The United States is the world’s greatest economic power, measured in terms of gross domestic product (GDP).
The nation’s wealth is partly a reflection of its rich natural resources and its enormous agricultural output, but it. An average of , foreigners a day in arrive the United States. This group includes 3, who have received immigrant visas that allow them to settle and become naturalized citizens after five years, and 99, tourists and business and student visitors.
The human impact on natural ecosystems has reached dangerous levels, even significantly altering the Earth's basic chemical cycles, says a new report, World Resources People and Ecosystems, The Fraying Web of Life.
The report paints a dismal picture of over-fished oceans, over-pumping of water for farming, destruction of coral reefs and forests, even too much tourism, with human.