He holds a golden rattle that resembles a sceptre; and the Latin inscription urges him to equal or surpass his father. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long",  with joy and relief. Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes". Edward was christened on 15 October, with his half-sisters, the year-old Lady Mary as godmother and the 4-year-old Lady Elizabeth carrying the chrisom ;  and the Garter King of Arms proclaimed him as Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester.
John XXIII, after being threatened with an investigation of his life, promised to resign if his rivals would do the same. Shortly after, however, he fled from Constance, hoping that this act would deprive the council of its power and lead to its dissolution. The emperor insisted that the council continue, and it issued the decree Sacrosanctaaffirming that a general council of the church is superior to the pope.
It further decreed that frequent councils are essential for the proper government of the church. Gregory XII agreed to abdicateprovided that he was permitted officially to convoke the council and so assert the legitimacy of his own line of popes, to which the council agreed.
Benedict XIII, who refused to resign, was also deposed.
The authenticity of the decree Sacrosancta has been a matter of great dispute among scholars. The council condemned 45 propositions of Wycliffe and 30 of Hus, who was declared an obstinate heretic, delivered to the secular power, and burned at the stake.
Furthermore, the council adopted seven reform decrees, and Martin V concluded concordats on other points, chiefly methods of taxation, with the various nations. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Council of Constance: Council of Constance, (–18), 16th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church.
Following the election of two rival popes (Gregory XII in Rome and Benedict XIII in Avignon) in and the attempt at the Council of Pisa in to resolve the Great Schism by the election of a new pope, the.
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