I don't include all the citations.
Counteractive[ edit ] Desire is an affectively charged motivation toward a certain object, person, or activity, but not limited to, that associated Individual success and importance of ei pleasure or relief from displeasure.
New research looked at what people desire in real world settings. Over one week, 7, self-reports of desires were collected and indicated significant differences in desire frequency and strength, degree of conflict between desires and other goals, and the likelihood of resisting desire and success of the resistance.
The most common and strongly experienced desires are those related to bodily needs like eating, drinking, and sleeping. This is a big reason why self-control is considered to be a public speaker's worst nightmare.
Counteractive Self-Control Theory states that when presented with such a dilemma, we lessen the significance of the instant rewards while momentarily increasing the importance of our overall values. When asked to rate the perceived appeal of different snacks before making a decision, people valued health bars over chocolate bars.
However, when asked to do the rankings after having chosen a snack, there was no significant difference of appeal. Further, when college students completed a questionnaire prior to their course registration deadline, they ranked leisure activities as less important and enjoyable than when they filled out the survey after the deadline passed.
The stronger and more available the temptation is, the harsher the devaluation will be. An indication of unneeded food could also be over expenditure on certain types of consumption such as eating away from home.
Without knowing anything else about a food, the mere suggestion of good taste triggers counteractive self-control and prompted them to devalue the temptation in the name of health. Further, when presented with the strong temptation of one large bowl of chips, participants both perceived the chips to be higher in calories and ate less of them than did participants who faced the weak temptation of three smaller chip bowls, even though both conditions represented the same amount of chips overall.
Weak temptations are falsely perceived to be less unhealthy, so self-control is not triggered and desirable actions are more often engaged in, supporting the counteractive self-control theory.
Satiation rates when eating depend on interactions of trait self-control and healthiness of the food. Those with low trait self-control satiated at the same pace regardless of health value.
Further, when reading a description emphasizing the sweet flavor of their snack, participants with higher trait self-control reported a decrease in desire faster than they did after hearing a description of the healthy benefits of their snack.
Once again, those with low self-control satiated at the same rate regardless of health condition. Perceived unhealthiness of the food alone, regardless of actual health level, relates to faster satiation, but only for people with high trait self-control.
Whereas low level construals emphasize concrete, definitive ideas and categorizations. Different construal levels determine our activation of self-control in response to temptations.
One technique for inducing high-level construals is asking an individual a series of "why? When taking an Implicit Association Testpeople with induced high-level construals are significantly faster at associating temptations such as candy bars with "bad," and healthy choices such as apples with "good" than those in the low-level condition.
Further, higher-level construals also show a significantly increased likelihood of choosing an apple for snack over a candy bar.
Without any conscious or active self-control efforts, temptations can be dampened by merely inducing high-level construals.
It is suggested that the abstraction of high-level construals reminds people of their overall, lifelong values, such as a healthy lifestyle, which deemphasizes the current tempting situation.
A token economy system is a behavioral program in which individuals in a group can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviors and can cash in the tokens for various backup, positive reinforcers.
One aspect of these procedural differences was the delay to the exchange period Hyten et al. The human subjects had to wait for an "exchange period" in which they could exchange their tokens for money, usually at the end of the experiment.
When this was done with the non-human subjects, in the form of pigeons, they responded much like humans in that males showed much less control than females.
She then states, that in adulthood, for the most part, the sexes equalize on their ability to exhibit self-control. This could imply a human's ability to exert more self-control as they mature and become aware of the consequences associated with impulsivity.
This suggestion is further examined below.We’ve learned that emotional intelligence (EQ) is a crucial skill for both leaders and employees.
But several studies point to just how important EQ can be to success, even trumping IQ and. Notes From Academic Articles.
Below are selected notes from my reading of some articles on emotional intelligence by the research team of John Mayer, Peter Salovey and David Caruso. Done! Is an e-learning hospitality training system to manage your hotel & restaurant customer service training.
That will improve the way you run your business, so you would achieve the goal of % happy customers, % of the time. This is the value of emotional intelligence in the workplace. emotional intelligence at work is about how people and relationships function: relationships between colleagues, between directors and staff; relationships between the organisation and its customers, stakeholders, suppliers, competitors, networking contacts, everyone.
Individual Success and Importance of EI and CI; Individual Success and Importance of EI and CI. Words May 15th, 7 Pages. There are number of factors that contribute to the success of an individual. These factors include but are not limited to emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, proactive personality and level of commitment.
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence and Personal Relationships As we look into the implications of EQ on both personal relationships and job performance, we will examine how Emotional Intelligence can affect these areas, as well as the ethical implications of doing so.