Such a conception of culture may bring some basic order while facing an unknown culture, but it may also have unintentional outcomes. It may lead to a deterministic view of other cultures, thereby reinforcing prejudices and underestimat- ing other forms of differences; it risks blinding the participants of the specific context of a given communicative situation. The article opens with a critical review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach.
Outer-directed Time as sequence vs.
Time as synchronisation Achieved status vs. Ascribed status Equality vs. Fons Trompenaars is another Dutch culturalist who is into international culture.
Teamed with Charles Hampden-Turner a dilemma enthusiastthey talk these days not so much of country stereotypes as the need to understand individuals. Particularism Universalism is about finding broad and general rules.
When no rules fit, it finds the best rule.
Particularism is about finding exceptions. When no rules fit, it judges the case on its own merits, rather than trying to force-fit an existing rule.
Integrating Analyzing decomposes to find the detail. It assumes that God is in the details and that decomposition is the way to success.
It sees people who look at the big picture as being out of touch with reality. Integrating brings things together to build the big picture.
It assumes that if you have your head in the weeds you will miss the true understanding.
Communitarianism Individualism is about the rights of the individual. It seeks to let each person grow or fail on their own, and sees group-focus as denuding the individual of their inalienable rights.
Communitarianism is about the rights of the group or society. It seeks to put the family, group, company and country before the individual. It sees individualism as selfish and short-sighted.
It assumes that thinking is the most powerful tool and that considered ideas and intuitive approaches are the best way. Outer-directed is seeking data in the outer world.
Time as sequence vs. Time as synchronisation Time as sequence sees events as separate items in time, sequence one after another. It finds order in a serried array of actions that happen one after the other.
Time as synchronisation sees events in parallel, synchronised together. It finds order in coordination of multiple efforts. Ascribed status Achieved status is about gaining status through performance.
It assumes individuals and organisations earn and lose their status every day, and that other approaches are recipes for failure. Ascribed status is about gaining status through other means, such as seniority.Practical training and internships in engineering education: educational goals and assessment OTTO ROMPELMAN†*andJAN DE VRIES† In many engineering curricula a period of .
1 IMARES, Department of Ecosystems, PO Box , AD Den Burg, The Netherlands. 2 Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej , DK Roskilde, Denmark. 3 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, PO Box , NL DD Wageningen, The Netherlands.
The iceberg model of culture reminds viewers of the complexity that culture really is. When Hofstede's six taxonomies become a bit complex to track, a quick look at this model goes far toward understanding what might have gone wrong in cross-cultural communication scenarios.
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