Consequently, the state in which TNCs operate remains the only duty bearer of human rights and should ensure that companies under its jurisdiction comply with human rights. The aim of this article is to examine the extent to which Nigeria and South Africa comply with their obligations to ensure that TNCs in extractive industries operating within their borders promote and respect human rights.
Disclaimer Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: Correspondence to Paul R Hunter email: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; It has been estimated that a patient in a bed within an African centre for Ebola treatment produced up to litres of liquid waste and excreta per day.
In the three countries most affected by the recent outbreak — i.
Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone — severe shortages of water and sanitation services in health-care facilities and the affected communities often complicated the safe disposal of waste.
In the present study, we used the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework to generate recommendations for mitigating the risks posed by virus-contaminated waste within health-care facilities and communities experiencing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease.
Although this framework was originally developed for food production systems, it has been successfully adapted to manage and mitigate the risks associated with drinking water.
It therefore offers the potential to manage risks when the quick control of an outbreak is essential even though — as with the survival of Ebola virus in sewage and other Critical analysis implementation of csr and 14 — the relevant research data are incomplete or can only be inferred.
In our analyses, we defined waste as both human waste — e. We identified those behaviours and practices linked to waste collection and disposal that are likely to present risks of direct or indirect transmission of Ebola virus between humans.
We then evaluated the potential of assessments based on the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework as a response tool during outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. We used a seven-step process — similar to that used for highly pathogenic avian influenza.
Team The international and multidisciplinary nature of the problems posed by Ebola virus meant that we — i. The research team included experts in disaster response, environmental health, Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points protocols, infection control nursing, infectious disease epidemiology, public health, risk assessment, small water systems, virology and water and sanitation engineering.
The team members were drawn from 19 different institutional departments spread across multiple countries within Africa, Europe and North America. Our analysis began when team members from the University of East Anglia Norwich, England held a series of small meetings.
The progress made in these meetings was then shared with a wider group of team members — for comment and feedback — before a two-day face-to-face meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, that was attended by all of the team members from Africa and several of those from Europe.
Process In the analysis, a systematic approach that allows for the synthesis of expert opinion is combined with the available evidence. This can bring clarity in an otherwise complex public health system. In our early meetings we concentrated on defining the most important waste products — in terms of risk of transmission — and then creating initial flow diagrams representing the pathways that could be used for the collection and disposal of each of these waste products.
The diagrams were then shared with other team members, by email — so that a wider group of experts could comment on them — before they were reviewed and simplified in a face-to-face meeting. At the two-day meeting, experts from the fields of health interventions, sanitation and wastewater hygiene gave their views on the flow diagrams.
This review and a final critical analysis by an international panel of experts led to further modifications to — and simplifications of — the diagrams.
We considered a hazard to be a process — within a developing world setting — that could lead to human contact with waste material contaminated with Ebola virus and so provide the opportunity for transmission of the virus to another person.
Taking into account the likely viral load of the contaminated material and based on the frequency with which each hazard was likely to occur, we grouped the hazards into high- medium- and low-risk categories. Following the validation of each flow diagram, the research team determined appropriate critical control points — i.
Recommendations We used the results of the analysis to develop recommendations for the management of waste produced in the care of cases of Ebola virus disease. We believe that, if managed poorly, each of these practices presents an unacceptable level of risk of the transmission of Ebola virus.
All the practices that we categorized as high-risk involved potential contamination with blood: All of the other activities and practices linked to waste disposal were deemed to present a lower level of risk of the transmission of the virus.
For each such point, following extensive consultation and cross-referencing with the existing literature, one or more potential hazards were identified. All of the critical control points identified could be assigned to one of five categories:and Challenges in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Implementation: The Case of Selected The analysis shows that strategic factors contribute the most to the implementation CSR Implementation, Challenges of CSR, Critical Success Factors, Corporate Sector, Sustainability Practices, Malaysia.
Critical Analysis on Corporate Social Responsibility. Introduction.
There is today a growing perception among the enterprises that sustainable success and shareholder value cannot be achieved solely through maximizing short term profits, but instead through market-oriented yet responsible, sensitive, humane behavior.
Companies are . We will write a custom essay sample on Critical analysis of marketing ethics- corporate social responsibility specifically for you for only $ $/page Order now. Congressional Research Service Reports on Miscellaneous Topics.
Older Americans Act: Overview and Funding, updated November 14, ; The Charitable Deduction for Individuals, CRS In Focus, November 13, ; Lame Duck Sessions of Congress Following a Majority-Changing Election: In Brief, November 13, ; Eight Mechanisms to Enact Procedural Change in the U.S.
Senate, CRS Insight, . factors of corporate social responsibility practices for the Malaysian automotive industry’, Int. J. Critical Accounting, Vol. 7, No.
2, pp– . Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence.