Controversy exists over whether children can be said to differ in a unitary abstract ability called intelligence or whether each child might better be described as possessing a set of specific cognitive abilities. Some children are especially proficient with verbal problems and less proficient… Theories of intelligence Theories of intelligence, as is the case with most scientific theories, have evolved through a succession of models. Four of the most influential paradigms have been psychological measurementalso known as psychometrics; cognitive psychologywhich concerns itself with the processes by which the mind functions; cognitivism and contextualism, a combined approach that studies the interaction between the environment and mental processes; and biological sciencewhich considers the neural bases of intelligence. What follows is a discussion of developments within these four areas.
This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watsonwho in his manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Also since James defined it, the term more strongly connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. History of psychology The ancient civilizations of EgyptGreeceChinaIndiaand Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology.
Historians note that Greek philosophersincluding ThalesPlatoand Aristotle especially in his De Anima treatise addressed the workings of the mind.
This body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, and interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin—yang balance, and analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria.
Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi —Liu Zhi —and Wang Qingren — Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomniaand advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function.
A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, and Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher awareness.
Yoga is a range of techniques used in pursuit of this goal. However, Indian doctrines influenced Western thinking via the Theosophical Societya New Age group which became popular among Euro-American intellectuals.
In Germany, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — applied his principles of calculus to the mind, arguing that mental activity took place on an indivisible continuum—most notably, that among an infinity of human perceptions and desires, the difference between conscious and unconscious awareness is only a matter of degree.
Christian Wolff identified psychology as its own science, writing Psychologia empirica in and Psychologia rationalis in This notion advanced further under Immanuel Kantwho established the idea of anthropologywith psychology as an important subdivision.
However, Kant explicitly and notoriously rejected the idea of experimental psychologywriting that "the empirical doctrine of the soul can also never approach chemistry even as a systematic art of analysis or experimental doctrine, for in it the manifold of inner observation can be separated only by mere division in thought, and cannot then be held separate and recombined at will but still less does another thinking subject suffer himself to be experimented upon to suit our purposeand even observation by itself already changes and displaces the state of the observed object.
However, this discipline did not yet embrace experimentation. Gustav Fechner began conducting psychophysics research in Leipzig in the s, articulating the principle Weber—Fechner law that human perception of a stimulus varies logarithmically according to its intensity.
Wundt, in turn, came to Leipzig University, establishing the psychological laboratory which brought experimental psychology to the world.
Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material.
Stanley Hall who studied with Wundt, formed a psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, which became internationally influential.
Hall, in turn, trained Yujiro Motorawho brought experimental psychology, emphasizing psychophysics, to the Imperial University of Tokyo. Catell, who also studied with eugenicist Francis Galtonwent on to found the Psychological Corporation.
Wittmer focused on mental testing of children; Scott, on selection of employees. Structuralism sought to analyze and classify different aspects of the mind, primarily through the method of introspection. InJames wrote an influential book, The Principles of Psychologywhich expanded on the realm of structuralism, memorably described the human " stream of consciousness ", and interested many American students in the emerging discipline.
This approach is based upon the idea that individuals experience things as unified wholes. Rather than breaking down thoughts and behavior into smaller elements, as in structuralism, the Gestaltists maintained that whole of experience is important, and differs from the sum of its parts.
Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghausa pioneer in the experimental study of memorywho developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlovwho discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed " classical conditioning " and applied to human beings.
The first meeting of the International Congress of Psychology sponsored by the International Union of Psychological Science took place in Paris, in Augustamidst the World's Fair celebrating the centennial of the French Revolution. William James was one of three Americans among the four hundred attendees.
The International Congress continued to be held, at different locations in Europe, with wider international participation. University of Michigan psychologist Dorwin Cartwright reported that university researchers began large-scale propaganda research in —, and "the last few months of the war saw a social psychologist become chiefly responsible for determining the week-by-week-propaganda policy for the United States Government.
Freudian psychoanalysts were expelled and persecuted under the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Partyand all psychologists had to distance themselves from Freud and Adler. This psychotherapy aimed to align suitable Germans with the overall goals of the Reich; as described by one physician: Alexander Mitscherlich founded a prominent applied psychoanalysis journal called Psyche and with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation established the first clinical psychosomatic medicine division at Heidelberg University.
Inpsychology was integrated into the required studies of medical students. Thus, university psychology departments trained large numbers of students, for whom positions were made available at schools, workplaces, cultural institutions, and in the military.Contrast senryu with ashio-midori.com also kigo, tanka, haikai, and hokku..
SENSIBILITY, LITERATURE OF: Eighteenth-century literature that values emotionalism over ashio-midori.com literature tends to perceive feelings as more reliable guides to morality and truth than abstract principles, and thus it tends to view human beings as essentially benevolent--a sharp contrast with the idea of Original Sin.
In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.
David McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well . Welcome to the official Stanford Prison Experiment website, which features extensive information about a classic psychology experiment that inspired an award-winning movie, New York Times bestseller, and documentary DVD.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST TWO PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES. Ψ. Psychology Level 3. Essay No Jayne Gurnsey.
Student No. The essay will begin with an introduction to each approach, giving main assumptions and supporting evidence. Ima Sample Educational Psychology 28 October x. Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky. Methods and approaches to teaching have been greatly influenced by the research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.
Extracts from this document Introduction. Compare and contrast the Functionalist and Marxist views of society. Sociology has been classified as the last in a long line of emerging scientific disciplines which people have developed and explored in order to make sense of their world.