You can help by adding to it. March Four largest syndicates[ edit ] Although yakuza membership has declined since the implementation of the Anti- Boryokudan Act inaccording to the National Police Agency Japan there are still approximately 39, active yakuza members in Japan as of
There may be disparities in the internal organization of the different sets but basically these sets employ a horizontal organization. This kind of structure gives each gang member the freedom to make independent decision but at the same time recognizing the presence of group leaderships.
This kind of organization also gives room for age related relationships among its members of a given age graded level. Roles are rotated among members depending skills and needs. Origins Three major theories or narratives that tend to give an explanation on the possible roots or origin of the Crips.
The first one bases the origin of this gang on racial violence that was institutional that the African migrating to Los Angeles encountered. A second theory or narration bases the origin of this gang on the political arena or context and tries to indicate that Crips emerged to fill the political vacuum that was formed by the dejection of community based political organizations such as United Slaves and black panthers.
These numerous narratives trying to explain the origin of the Crips may be due to either the nature of the Crips structure or the existence of gangs since time immemorial Kontos and Brotherton, Institutional Racial violence The Crips surfaced at a time when African Americans in the city of Los Angeles were faced with social isolation and economic dislocation leading to the surfacing of the black's hyper ghetto Lloyd, Between s and many African Americans migrated to Los Angeles to work in the manufacturing industries that were booming.
But the white communities in the city mistrusted and at the same time mistreated them. In most cases the white used excessive violence in attempt to stop the black communities from moving into their areas.
The rising number of blacks forced most whites to abandon these areas resulting in the concentration of the black communities in some specific areas of Los Angeles especially the south central region.
By majority of the manufacturing plants or industries were moved across to border to Latin America for cheaper production costs as well as availability of cheaper human working force after the implementation of the so called Border industrialization program.
This resulted in economic decline in the inner cities leading extreme social isolation and decay relative to American mainstream society. According to Kontos and Brotherton gangs were created by African American youths as defensive mechanism to counter the violence committed against them by the by gangs belonging to the white youths.
Political context that is political mobilization.
According to one of the Black Panther ex-members Abu-Jamal Mumia, claims that the origin of the Crips can be traced back to Relation for the Independent People, a community based organization. This community based organization embraced ideas like Black Nationalism, self-determination and community activism, primary characteristics of many African America organizations of the s and later years.
The primary activities of these black organizations were group socialization and cultural affirmation Cummings and Monti, But, different government agencies and the police destroyed Crips' initial political roots when they waged war against any black related political activity during this era.
African American political leaders were either assassinated or imprisoned. This left both a political and social vacuum in the black dominated neighborhoods. The Crips proliferated in an era the African America communities were under extreme political, social and economical discrimination.
Despite of the different efforts to redirect the Crips towards community and political related goals, some members of the Crips engaged themselves in endless circle of violence with the aim of gaining street supremacy.“According to a national gang survey, the most recent estimate indicates that there were about , gang members in 24, gangs in the United States in ” this just supports the statement that it is a huge problem in the United States (Cooper, , p.
1). Another Plantation attempt to define Moorish Americans. by AbundanceChild. Gangs in the United States include several types of groups, including national street gangs, local street gangs, prison gangs, motorcycle clubs, and ethnic and organized crime gangs.
Approximately million people were part of gangs as of , and more than 33, gangs were active in the United States. Many American gangs began, . Andrew Young, Jr., came into prominence as a civil rights activist and close associate of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., during the modern civil rights movement in the United States..
Young worked with various organizations early in the movement, but his civil rights work was largely done with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) where . One of the most well-known of the "Sureño" gangs in Southern California, the 18th Street Gang is said to be responsible for at least one robbery or assault a day in Los Angeles County.
Mar 24, · Since the attacks on September 11th, global initiatives to stop terrorism have taken place around the globe, most notably in the Middle East. With so much attention focused on one particular area, it is easy to forget that their are domestic terrorist groups in our own back yard.