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Ecological fallacy[ edit ] An ecological fallacy is committed when one draws an inference from data based on the premise that qualities observed for groups necessarily hold for individuals; for example, "if countries with more Protestants tend to have higher suicide rates, then Protestants must be more likely to commit suicide.
For a given fallacy, one must either characterize it by means of a deductive argumentation schema, which rarely applies the first prong of the fork or one must relax definitions and add nuance to take the actual intent and context of the argument into account the other prong of the fork.
Nevertheless, informal fallacies apply to both deductive and non-deductive arguments. Though the form of the argument may be relevant, fallacies of this type are the "types of mistakes in reasoning that arise from the mishandling of the content of the propositions constituting the argument".
Here the most important issue concerns inductive strength or methodology for example, statistical inference. In the absence of sufficient evidence, drawing conclusions based on induction is unwarranted and fallacious. With the backing of empirical evidencehowever, the conclusions may become warranted and convincing at which point the arguments are no longer considered fallacious.
Hasty generalisation often follows a pattern such as: X is true for A.
X is true for B. Therefore, X is true for C, D, etc. While never a valid logical deduction, if such an inference can be made on statistical grounds, it may nonetheless be convincing. This is because with enough empirical evidence, the generalization is no longer a hasty one. Relevance fallacy[ edit ] The fallacies of relevance are a broad class of informal fallacies see the navbox belowgenerically represented by missing the point: Presenting an argument, which may be soundbut fails to address the issue in question.
Argumentum ex silentio[ edit ] An argument from silence features an unwarranted conclusion advanced based on the absence of data. Examples of informal fallacies[ edit ] Main article: Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B.
Slippery slope[ edit ] Definition: The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but in fact there is not enough evidence for that assumption.
Where mathematical fallacies are subtle mistakes in reasoning leading to invalid mathematical proofs, measurement fallacies are unwarranted inferential leaps involved in the extrapolation of raw data to a measurement-based value claim.
The ancient Greek Sophist Protagoras was one of the first thinkers to propose that humans can generate reliable measurements through his "human-measure" principle and the practice of dissoi logoi arguing multiple sides of an issue. Knowledge value measurement fallacy[ edit ] Increasing availability and circulation of big data are driving proliferation of new metrics for scholarly authority,   and there is lively discussion regarding the relative usefulness of such metrics for measuring the value of knowledge production in the context of an "information tsunami".
For example, limitations of the journal impact factor JIF are well documented,  and even JIF pioneer Eugene Garfield notes, "while citation data create new tools for analyses of research performance, it should be stressed that they supplement rather than replace other quantitative-and qualitative-indicators.
A naturalistic fallacy can occur for example in the case of sheer quantity metrics based on the premise "more is better"  or, in the case of developmental assessment in the field of psychology, "higher is better. For example, the Scopus and Web of Science bibliographic databases have difficulty distinguishing between citations of scholarly work that are arms-length endorsements, ceremonial citations, or negative citations indicating the citing author withholds endorsement of the cited work.
This creates a possibility that low productivity measurements using the tool may constitute argument from silence fallacies, to the extent that such measurements are supported by the absence of book citation data.
Ecological fallacies can be committed when one measures scholarly productivity of a sub-group of individuals e. In any context, including academic debate, a conversation among friends, political discourse, advertising, or for comedic purposes, the arguer may use fallacious reasoning to try to persuade the listener or reader, by means other than offering relevant evidence, that the conclusion is true.
Examples of this include the speaker or writer: Groucho Marx used fallacies of amphibolyfor instance, to make ironic statements; Gary Larson and Scott Adams employed fallacious reasoning in many of their cartoons.
Wes Boyer and Samuel Stoddard have written a humorous essay teaching students how to be persuasive by means of a whole host of informal and formal fallacies. However, even more worryingly, in other instances it is a tactic or ploy used inappropriately in argumentation to try to get the best of a speech part unfairly.
The dialogue framework required to support the pragmatic theory of fallacy is built on the presumption that argumentative dialogue has both an adversarial component and a collaborative component.
A dialogue has individual goals for each participant, but also collective shared goals that apply to all participants. A fallacy of the second kind is seen as more than simply violation of a rule of reasonable dialogue. It is also a deceptive tactic of argumentation, based on sleight-of-hand.
Aristotle explicitly compared contentious reasoning to unfair fighting in athletic contest. But the roots of the pragmatic theory go back even further in history to the Sophists. The pragmatic theory finds its roots in the Aristotelian conception of a fallacy as a sophistical refutation, but also supports the view that many of the types of arguments traditionally labelled as fallacies are in fact reasonable techniques of argumentation that can be used, in many cases, to support legitimate goals of dialogue.
Hence on the pragmatic approach, each case needs to analyzed individually, to determine by the textual evidence whether the argument is fallacious or reasonable.The Role of Transference in the Psychoanalytic Technique It is perfectly true that psychoanalysis, like other psychotherapeutic methods, employs the instrument of suggestion (or transference).
But the difference is this: that in analysis it is not allowed to play the . Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two.
Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get back words like "gazellephant" and "gorilldebeest". This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets.
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