An analysis of copper

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An analysis of copper

Experiment on analysis of copper in brass by UV-Visible spectroscopy Experiment on analysis of copper in brass by UV-Visible spectroscopy 7 July Chemistry By the end of this experiment, the student should be able to demonstrate the following proficiencies: To determine the percentage of copper in brass by UV-visible spectroscopy.

Properly calibrate and use a spectrophotometer. Convert percent transmittance to absorbance, and vice versa. Construct a calibration curve relating absorbance and concentration for solutions of known concentrations.

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Use a calibration curve to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. Convert a molar concentration to a mass percent value.

When light acts as a particle, called a photon, each light particle possesses a discrete amount of energy called a quantum. When a molecule is exposed to electromagnetic energy it can absorb a photon, increasing its energy by an amount equal to the energy of the photon.

The energy of the absorbed photon can be calculated if the frequency,? The frequency of a light wave is inversely proportional to its wavelength,? Equation 2 Molecules are highly selective in the wavelengths of light they can absorb. The photons absorbed depend on the on molecular structure and can be measured by instruments called spectrometers.

The data obtained from a spectrometer are very sensitive indicators of molecular structure and concentration.

UV light ranges An analysis of copper approximately 10 nm to about nm. The visible region of the spectrum ranges from nm to nm. Red light lies at the low Page 2 of 9 energy end of the visible spectrum and violet lies at the high energy end.

UV-VIS spectroscopy depends on transitions of electrons in a molecule from one electronic energy level to another. It is used mostly in studying transition metal complexes and conjugated?

An analysis of copper

One of the principal uses of UV-VIS spectrometry is in determining the concentration of an absorbing coloured molecule. The amount of light absorbed, and thus the intensity of the colour of the solution, depends on the concentration of the absorbing species in the solution.

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UV-VIS absorption peaks are typically quite broad and are often spoken of as bands rather than as peaks. The wavelength at maximum absorption is referred to as?

This solution is used to subtract out absorbance due to interfering species. When a beam of light with intensity, Io, passes through a solution, a coloured species, or analyte, will absorb some of the light energy. The beam of light that passes through or is transmitted through the solution will have a lower intensity, I, than the incident light, Io because some of the light will be absorbed.

Spectrometers typically measure either transmittance, T, which is the amount of transmitted light, or absorbance, A, which is a measure of the light absorbed.

An analysis of copper

Both transmittance and absorbance are measures of the amount of light that is absorbed by the analyte. Transmittance is calculated by dividing the transmitted light by the incident light Equation 3. The amount of light absorbed by a compound depends on the structure of the compound and the solvent.

However, for any chemical species in a given solvent, the amount of light absorbed at a given wavelength will be a constant called the molar absorptivity,? The absorbance, A, is a function of the concentration, c, of the absorbing species and the distance the light travels through the solution, that is the path length, l.

Absorbance can be calculated for any solution for which the molar absorptivity is known Equation 7. Since molar absorptivity and path length are both constants for a given instrument, one may safely assume that the absorbance is directly proportional only to the concentration of the analyte.

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When the absorbance of an unknown sample is determined, the concentration can then be determined by graphical interpolation from the prepared calibration graph.

Brass is an alloy composed of zinc and copper. In order to determine the copper content in a sample of brass we must first dissolve the sample.

To achieve this we will use nitric acid, a strong oxidizing acid. The reaction can be described by the following equation. The dissolution process therefore must be done in a working fume hood.

Brass foil Copper foil Distilled water 8M nitric acid ml beaker 5 conical flasks Electronic balance; model:Southern Copper Corporation engages in mining, exploring, smelting, and refining copper and other minerals in Peru, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, and Ecuador.

To determine the percentage of copper in brass by UV-visible spectroscopy. 2. Properly calibrate and use a spectrophotometer. 3. Convert percent transmittance to absorbance, and vice versa. 4. Construct a calibration curve relating absorbance and concentration for solutions of known concentrations.

Experiment on analysis of copper in brass. About Potatoes. Whether mashed, baked or roasted, people often consider potatoes as comfort food. It is an important food staple and the number one vegetable crop in the world.

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